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Saturday, 17 October 2015

Sejarah Koperasi di Indonesia, Masa Belanda, Zaman Jepang, awal Kemerdekaan dan Orde Baru

Sejarah perkembangan koperasi tidak bisa dilepaskan kaitannya dengan perkembangan sosialisme yang merupakan antitesis dari kapitalisme yang berkembang di Eropa. Kinerja kapitalisme yang memburuk berupa terjadinya depresi ekonomi (kelangkaan barang, pengangguran yang meluas berkepajangan) mendorong munculnya dari orang-orang yang tertindas dan terpinggirkan seperti gerakan kaum buruh dan ide tentang koperasi. Hudiyanto Koperasi: Ideologi dan Pengelolaanya. Proyek Peningkatan Penelitian Pendidikan Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan Tinggi Departemen Pendidikan Nasional 2002.

Mula-mula koperasi tumbuh pada awal abad ke 19, sebagai hasil usaha spontan yang dilakukan oleh orang-orang yang mempunyai kemampuan ekonomi terbatas serta akibat penderitaan sosial ekonomi yang timbul dari sistem kapitalisme. Kemudian mereka mempersatukan diri untuk menolong diri mereka sendiri, serta  ikut mengembangkan kesejahteraan masyarakat sekitarnya. Pandji Anaroga, Ninik Widiyanti, Dinamika Koperasi. (Jakarta: BINA ADIAKSARA 2007), hal 38.

Dengan latar belakang seperti itu, tidak mengherankan jika keberadaan koperasi sangat erat kaitannya dengan perjuangan untuk mewujudkan keadilan  sosial. Pada mulanya, pertumbuhan koperasi memang tidak dapat dipisahkan dari berkembangnya ide-ide tentang pembaharuan masyarakat yang dipelopori oleh kaum sosialis.  Hal  inilah  antara  lain  yang  menyebabkan  kuatnya  pengaruh  pemikiran- pemikiran sosialis dalam perkembangan koperasi. Revrisond  Baswir; Koperasi Indonesia. (Yogyakarta: BPFE, 2000), hal 30.

Dua alasan yang mendasari pengaruh sosialisme itu adalah sebagai berikut : Pertama, terdapatnya kesamaan motif antara gerakan koperasi dengan gerakan sosialis. Sebagai reaksi terhadap penderitaan kaum buruh dalam sistem  perekonomian kapitalis, baik gerakan koperasi maupun gerakan sosialis sama-sama bermaksud membebaskan kaum buruh dari hisapan kaum kapitalis. Kedua, sebagai suatu bentuk organisasi ekonomi yang berbeda dengan bentuk organisasi ekonomi kapitalis, koperasi menawarkan kerangka dasar tatanan sosial yang berbeda dengan tatanan sosial masyarakat kapitalis. Oleh gerakan sosialis, bentuk usaha koperasi dipandang sebagai cara praktis bagi kaum buruh dan produsen kecil untuk melepaskan diri mereka dari tindasan kaum kapitalis. Sebab itu mereka sangat menganjurkan berdirinya koperasi.Ibid. hal 31

Namun dalam perkembangan selanjutnya, gerakan koperasi menemukan jalan sendiri yang berbeda dengan cara-cara dan langkah-langkah yang ditempuh oleh gerakan sosialis. Sebagai suatu gerakan, koperasi sangat menjungjung tinggi cara- cara demokratis untuk melawan kekuasaan kaum kapitalis yang menindas. Dengan sikap semacam itu, tidak mengherankan bila kemudian sistem politik demokratis. Dinegara-negara kapitalis yang demokratis , koperasi cenderung berkembang sebagai bentuk perusahaan alternatif yang berfungs untuk mengimbangi kelemahan bentuk- bentuk perusahaan kapitalis. Ibid. hal 32

Sejarah perkembangan koperasi di Indonesia terbagi pada:
  • pada masa Belanda,
  • pada masa Jepang,
  • pada masa kemerdekaan, dan
  • setelah orde baru (1965).


Koperasi pertama kali diperkenalkan di Indonesia oleh Raden Aria Wiraatmaja, seorang Patih di Purwokerto dengan mendirikan bank yang dikhususkan untuk menolong para pegawai agar tidak terjerat oleh para rentenir. Badan usaha yang dibentuk adalah Bank Penolong dan Tabungan (Hulp en Spaarbank). Koperasi yang pada awalnya hanya diperuntukkan bagi pegawai rendahan kemudian berkembang kearah koperasi untuk sektor pertanian (Hulp spar en Landbouwcredit Bank). Hudiyanto, op.cit. hal 47

Pada zaman Belanda perekonomian Indonesia mengalami kemerosotan, terutama ekonomi dari penduduk pribumi. Hal ini bisa dikaitkan dengan penggolongan dan diskriminasi penduduk Indonesia kedalam penduduk golongan Eropa dan Timur Asing (India, Cina) disatu pihak dengan penduduk pribumi dipihak lain. Dalam keadaan diperlakukan secara berbeda maka muncul gerakan-gerakan politik seperti Boedi Oetomo (1908), Serikat Dagang  Islam (1911), Muhammadiyah (1912), Partai Nasional Indonesia (1927) yang mencoba menggerakkan semangat nasionalisme. Ibid. hal 47.

Sejalan dengan itu lalu muncul gerakan koperasi, misalnya dengan  munculnya keputusan raja tanggal 7 April 1915 berkaitan dengan berlakunya peraturan mengenai koperasi (Verorderning op de Cooperatieve Vereeniging) yang berlaku baik bagi penduduk Eropa, Timur Asing maupun pribumi. Namun demikian karena peraturan itu merupakan terjemahan dari peraturan koperasi di belanda, maka koperasi seakan hanya diperuntukkan bagi orang-orang Belanda dan Cina. Hal ini mengingat dalam pendirian koperasi disyaratkan beberapa hal yang tidak bisa dipenuhi oleh penduduk pribumi yaitu (1) akte pendirian harus dibuat dengan perantaraan notaris yang tentu saja memerlukan biaya yang tidak sedikit; (2) biaya materai sekurang-kurangnya 50 gulden, dan (3) hak atas tanah harus diatur   menurut aturan hukum eropa. Soeharto Djojosoempeno, Pola Koperasi Indonesia dan Perkembangannya, (Jogja :Sinar Asia, 1964), hal 48.

Koperasi sebagai suatu sistem ekonomi, mempunyai kedudukan (politik)  yang cukup kuat karena memiliki cantolan konstitusional, yaitu berpegang  pada Pasal 33 UUD 1945, khususnya Ayat 1 yang menyebutkan bahwa Perekonomian disusun sebagai usaha bersama berdasar atas asas kekeluargaan. Dalam Penjelasan UUD 1945 itu dikatakan bahwa bangun usaha yang paling cocok dengan asas kekeluargaan  itu  adalah  Koperasi.  Tafsiran  itu  sering  pula  dikemukakan      oleh

Mohammad Hatta, yang sering disebut sebagai perumus pasal tersebut. Karima Afifah,Koperasi Indonesia, diakses dari http://agrma.wordpress.com/2011/09/25/koperasi-indonesia/ tanggal 21 februari 2014 pukul 09:49 wib

Pada penjelasan konstitusi tersebut juga dikatakan, bahwa sistem ekonomi Indonesia didasarkan pada asas demokrasi ekonomi, di mana produksi dilakukan  oleh semua dan untuk semua yang wujudnya dapat ditafsirkan sebagai koperasi.Dalam wacana sistem ekonomi dunia, koperasi disebut juga sebagai the third way, atau jalan ketiga, istilah yang akhir-akhir ini dipopulerkan oleh sosiolog Inggris, Anthony Giddens, yaitu sebagai jalan tengah antara kapitalisme dan sosialisme.Koperasi diperkenalkan di Indonesia oleh R. Aria Wiriatmadja di Purwokerto, Jawa Tengah pada tahun 1896. Ia mendirikan Koperasi kredit dengan tujuan membantu rakyatnya yang terjerat hutang dengan rentenir. R. Aria Wiriatmadja atau Tirto Adisuryo, yang kemudian dibantu pengembangannya oleh pejabat Belanda dan akhirnya menjadi program resmi pemerintah.Ibid.   

Seorang pejabat pemerintah Belanda, yang kemudian menjadi sarjana ekonomi, Booke, juga menaruh perhatian terhadap koperasi. Atas dasar tesisnya, tentang dualisme sosial budaya masyarakat Indonesia antara sektor modern dan sektor tradisional, ia berkesimpulan bahwa sistem usaha koperasi lebih cocok bagi kaum pribumi daripada bentuk badan-badan usaha kapitalis. Pandangan ini agaknya disetujui oleh pemerintah Hindia Belanda sehingga pemerintah kolonial itu mengadopsi kebijakan pembinaan koperasi. Meski koperasi tersebut berkembang pesat hingga tahun 1933-an, pemerintah Kolonial Belanda khawatir Koperasi akan dijadikan tempat pusat perlawanan, namun koperasi menjamur kembali hingga   pada masa pendudukan Jepang dan kemerdekaan. Ibid.   

Sejarah Koperasi Zaman Jepang 

Pendudukan Jepang menggantikan Belanda di Indonesia mengubah banyak hal. Susunan dan tata pemerintahan di daerah bekas belanda diatur menurut kebutuhan perang, dan tidak lagi merupakan suatu daerah pemerintahan . pemerintah mengeluarkan undang-undang no 23 tahun 1942 yang antara lain menentukan bahwa untuk mendirikan perkumpulan dang mengadakan rapat harus minta ijin terlebih dahulu  pada  syuutjokan  (residen).  Dengan  undang-undang  maka  koperasi praktis tidak memiliki ruang gerak. Hudiyanto, op.cit. hal 49

Sejarah Koperasi Zaman awal Kemerdekaan

Kemerdekaan yang diraih oleh bangsa indonesia membawa arah baru bagi pengembangan koperasi dengan dicantumkannya usaha koperasi dalam pasal 33 UUD 1945. Disebutkan bahwa perekonomian Indonesia disusun berdasarkan asas kekeluargaan. Sebagaimana diuraikan dalam penjelasan pasal 33, bangun usaha yang cocok dengan ayat itu adalah koperasi. Agar pengembangan koperasi bisa lebih sejalan dengan pasal 33 akhirnya dilakukan reorganisasi dimana jawatan (departemen) yang mengurusi koperasi dipisahkan dari jawatan koperasi dan perdagangan dalam negeri. Urusan koperasi diserahkan sepenuhnya kepada   jawatan koperasi  Ibid  hal 50

Akhir tahun 1958 dikeluarkan undang-undang tentang perkoperasian dengan mendasarkan diri kepada UUD sementara pasal 38. Karena masih mengacu pada pasal 38 UUD Sementara maka sering dikatakan bahwa jiwa dari Undang-undang tentang koperasi itu dianggap bertolak belakang, sehingga koperasi yang berdiri merupakan koperasi yang masih bersemangat liberal dan setengah revolusioner. Soeharto Djojosoempeno, Pola Koperasi Indonesia dan Perkembangannya, (Jogja, Sinar Asia, 1964), hal.30

Sejarah Koperasi Zaman Orde Baru

Pada tanggal 12 Juli 1947, pergerakan koperasi di Indonesia mengadakan Kongres Koperasi yang pertama di Tasikmalaya. Hari ini kemudian ditetapkan sebagai Hari Koperasi Indonesia. Bung Hatta meneruskan tradisi pemikiran ekonomi sebelumnya. Ketertarikannya kepada sistem koperasi agaknya adalah karena pengaruh kunjungannya ke negara-negara Skandinavia, khususnya Denmark, pada akhir tahun 1930-an. Walaupun ia sering mengaitkan koperasi dengan nilai dan lembaga tradisional gotong-royong, namun persepsinya tentang koperasi adalah sebuah organisasi ekonomi modern yang berkembang di Eropa Barat. Ia pernah juga membedakan antara koperasi sosial yang berdasarkan asas gotong royong, dengan koperasi ekonomi yang berdasarkan asas-asas ekonomi pasar yang rasional dan kompetitif. Bagi Bung Hatta, koperasi bukanlah sebuah lembaga yang antipasar atau nonpasar dalam masyarakat tradisional. Koperasi, baginya adalah sebuah lembaga self-help lapisan masyarakat yang lemah atau rakyat kecil untuk bisa mengendalikan pasar.  Karena  itu  koperasi  harus  bisa  bekerja  dalam  sistem  pasar,  dengan   cara menerapkan prinsip efisiensi.Ibid.   

Menurut Bung Hatta, tujuan koperasi bukanlah mencari laba yang sebesar- besarnya, melainkan melayani kebutuhan bersama dan wadah partisipasi pelaku ekonomi skala kecil. Tapi, ini tidak berarti, bahwa koperasi itu identik dengan  usaha skala kecil. Koperasi bisa pula membangun usaha skala besar berdasarkan modal yang bisa dikumpulkan dari anggotanya, baik anggota koperasi primer maupun anggota koperasi sekunder. Contohnya adalah industri tekstil yang dibangun oleh GKBI (Gabungan Koperasi Batik Indonesia) dan berbagai Koperasi batik primer.Karena kedudukannya yang cukup kuat dalam konstitusi, maka tidak sebuah pemerintahpun berani meninggalkan kebijakan dan program pembinaan koperasi. Semua partai politik, dari dulu hingga kini, dari Masyumi hingga PKI, mencantumkan koperasi sebagai program utama. Hanya saja kantor menteri negara dan departemen koperasi baru lahir di masa Orde Baru pada akhir dasarwarsa 1970- an. Karena itu, gagasan sekarang untuk menghapuskan departemen koperasi dan pembinaan usaha kecil dan menengah, bukan hal yang mengejutkan, karena sebelum Orde Baru tidak dikenal kantor menteri negara atau departemen koperasi. Bahkan, kabinet-kabinet yang dipimpin oleh Bung Hatta sendiri pun tidak ada departemen atau menteri negara yang  khusus membina Koperasi.

Daftar Pustaka Makalah Sejarah Koperasi di Indonesia

Sejarah Koperasi di Indonesia, Masa Belanda, Zaman Jepang, awal Kemerdekaan dan Orde Baru Rating: 4.5 Posted By: Rarang Tengah

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